Thursday, October 21, 2021

Japan’s 400 Kilometre Tsunami Shield 日本の400キロメートルの津波シールド


"The B1M" Channel on Youtube shows one of the most important pieces of concrete in Japan.

Keep in mind, the geophysical effects that Japan has. Portions of northeastern Japan shifted by as much as 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) closer to North America, making some sections of Japan's landmass wider than before. Those areas of Japan closest to the epicenter experienced the largest shifts. A 400-kilometre (250 mi) stretch of coastline dropped vertically by 0.6 metres (2 ft 0 in), allowing the tsunami to travel farther and faster onto land. One early estimate suggested that the Pacific plate may have moved westward by up to 20 metres (66 ft), and another early estimate put the amount of slippage at as much as 40 m (130 ft). On 6 April the Japanese coast guard said that the quake shifted the seabed near the epicenter 24 metres (79 ft) and elevated the seabed off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture by 3 metres (9.8 ft).

The 9.1-magnitude (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) in the north-western Pacific Ocean at a relatively shallow depth of 32 km (20 mi), with its epicenter approximately 72 km (45 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, Japan, lasting approximately six minutes.

Youtubeの「TheB1M」チャンネルは、日本で最も重要なコンクリートの1つを示しています。

日本が持つ地球物理学的影響を覚えておいてください。日本北東部の一部は、北米に2.4メートル(7フィート10インチ)も近づき、日本の陸地の一部が以前よりも広くなりました。震源地に最も近い日本のこれらの地域は、最大の変化を経験しました。 400キロメートル(250マイル)の海岸線が垂直方向に0.6メートル(2フィート0インチ)下がったため、津波はさらに速く陸地に移動することができました。ある初期の推定では、太平洋プレートが最大20メートル(66フィート)西に移動した可能性があり、別の初期の推定では、滑りの量は最大40メートル(130フィート)でした。 4月6日、日本の沿岸警備隊は、地震により震源近くの海底が24メートル(79フィート)移動し、宮城県沖の海底が3メートル(9.8フィート)上昇したと述べた。

マグニチュード9.1(Mw)の海底巨大地震は、2011年3月11日14:46 JST(05:46 UTC)に、太平洋北西部の比較的浅い深さ32 km(20 mi)で発生し、震源地は約日本の東北地方太平洋沖地震の牡鹿半島の東72km(45マイル)、約6分間続きます。


Sunday, October 10, 2021

Occupations in Japanese 日本語の職業


Occupations in Japanese 日本語の職業

Kanji - Hiragana or Katakana - Romaji - Meaning

01. 職業 しょくぎょう shoku gyou Occupation
02. 医者 いしゃ isha Doctor
03. 看護婦 かんごふ kango fu Female Nurse
04. 看護師 かんごし kango shi Nurse
05. 歯科医 しかい shikai Dentist
06. 科学者 かがくしゃ kagaku sha Scientist
07. 美容師 びようし biyou shi Hairdresser / Beauty Artist
08. 教師 きょうし kyoushi Teacher
09. 先生 せんせい sensei Teacher
10. 歌手 かしゅ kashu Singer
11. 運転手 うんてんしゅ unten shu Driver / Chauffeur
12. 野球選手 やきゅうせんしゅ yakyuu senshu Baseball Player
13. サッカー選手 サッカーせんしゅ sakka- senshu Soccer Player
14. 画家 がか gaka Painter / Artist
15. 芸術家 げいじゅつか geijutsu ka Artist
16. 写真家 しゃしんか shashin ka Photographer
17. 作家 さっか sakka Author / Writer
18. 演説家 えんぜつか enzetsu ka Speaker / Orator
19. 演奏家 えんそうか ensou ka Performing Musician
20. 演出家 えんしゅつか enshutsu ka Producer / Director
21. 建築家 けんちくか kenchiku ka Architect
22. 政治家 せいじか seiji ka Politician
23. 警官 けいかん kei kan Policeman
24. 警察官 けいさつかん keisatsu kan Policeman
25. お巡りさん おまわりさん omawari san Policeman (Friendly term)
26. コック kokku Cook
27. シェフ shefu Chef
28. 調理師 ちょうりし chouri shi Cook / Chef
29. 料理人 りょうりにん ryouri nin Cook / Chef
30. 料理長 りょうりちょう ryouri chou Head Chef / Master Chef
31. 裁判官 さいばんかん saiban kan Judge
32. 弁護士 べんごし bengo shi Lawyer / Attorney
33. 会計士 かいけいし kaikei shi Accountant
34. 消防士 しょうぼうし shoubou shi Firefighter / Fireman
35. 兵士 へいし hei shi Soldier
36. 銀行員 ぎんこういん ginkou in Bank Employee
37. 公務員 こうむいん koumu in Civil Servant / Government Worker
38. 駅員 えきいん eki in Station Worker / Station Attendant
39. 店員 てんいん ten in Shop Assistant
40. 会社員 かいしゃいん kaisha in Company Employee
41. 警備員 けいびいん keibi in Security Guard
42. 研究員 けんきゅういん kenkyuu in Researcher
43. 派遣社員 はけんしゃいん hakensha in Temporary Worker
44. 秘書 ひしょ hisho Secretary
45. サラリーマン sarari-man Salary man / Salaried Employee
46. フリーター furi-ta- Part-time Worker
47. OL オーエル o- eru Office Lady / Female Office Worker
48. 俳優 はいゆう haiyuu Actor / Performer
49. 女優 じょゆう joyuu Actress
50. 役者 やくしゃ yakusha Actor / Actress / Performer
51. 監督 かんとく kantoku Movie Director
52. 監督 かんとく kantoku Sport's Coach
53. 監督 かんとく kantoku Supervisor / Superintendent
54. 占い師 うらないし uranai shi Fortuneteller / Diviner
55. 牧師 ぼくし boku shi Pastor / Clergyman
56. 漁師 りょうし ryou shi Fisherman
57. 猟師 りょうし ryou shi Hunter
58. 理髪師 りはつし rihatsu shi Barber
59. 散髪屋 さんぱつや sanpatsuya Barber
60. 床屋 とこや tokoya Barber
61. 講師 こうし kou shi Lecturer
62. 技師 ぎし gi shi Engineer / Technologist
63. 教授 きょうじゅ kyouju Professor
64. エンジニア enjinia Engineer
65. 大工 だいく daiku Carpenter
66. 探偵 たんてい tantei Detective
67. スチュワーデス suchuwa-desu Stewardess / Female Flight Attendant
68. パイロット pairotto Pilot
69. 機長 きちょう kichou Pilot / Plane Captain
70. 添乗員 てんじょういん tenjouin Tour Conductor / Tour Guide
71. 不動産業者 ふどうさんぎょうしゃ fudousan gyousha Real Estate Agent
72. 記者 きしゃ kisha Reporter
73. ジャーナリスト ja-narisuto Journalist
74. 農民 のうみん noumin Farmer
75. 無職者 むしょくしゃ mushoku sha Unemployed Person
76. リストラ risutora Restructure / Corporate Downsizing
77. 過労死 かろうし karoushi Death from Overwork

Saturday, October 9, 2021

Interesting Common Japanese Verbs 興味深い一般的な日本語の動詞


Japanese Verbs and Tenses 日本語の動詞と時制

These are really pretty useful Japanese Verbs:

食べる (Taberu) - To eat. Example sentence 私はケーキを食べる(Watashi wa keeki o taberu) literally "I will eat cake!"
見る (Miru) - To watch
寝る (Neru) - To sleep
勉強する (Benkyou suru) - To study
読む (Yomu) - To read
飲む (Nomu) - To drink
歩く (Aruku) - To walk
座る (Suwaru) - To sit

Verb 動詞
Tense 時制
Conjugation 活用
Regular レギュラー
Irregular 不規則
Dictionary 辞書
Original 元の

Japanese verb conjugations are interesting. See the list of Japanese verb conjugations. Almost all of these are regular, but there are a few Japanese irregular verbs, and the conjugations of the few irregular verbs are also listed. Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The present plain form (the dictionary form) of all verbs ends in u. In modern Japanese, there are no verbs that end in fu, pu, or yu, no verbs ending in zu other than certain する forms (such as 禁ず kin-zu), and 死ぬ (しぬ, shinu; to die) is the only one ending in nu in the dictionary form.

When a verb is conjugated it adopts a so called "form". Forms change depending on the tense, mode, and suffix of the verb's stem. The stem of the verb is the prefix that is unchanging in the conjugation.

For example in the following infinitive (aka dictionary) forms of these verbs the stem is in bold:

iku (行く): To go
taberu (食べる) To eat
Verb conjugates are often grouped into two categories, according to whether the last letter of the stem is a vowel or consonant (when romanized)

Type I: consonant-stems (五段動詞, godandōshi), and
Type II: vowel-stems (一段動詞, ichidandōshi, いる iru,える eru forms).
For conjugating type I verbs the suffix of the infinitive form is replaced by a different sound according to the original suffix, then a suffix which is consistent by tense is added.

The infinitive form of a type I verb has an う u sound (u, tsu, ru, ku, gu, nu, bu, mu, su)
The polite ~ます -masu form has an い i sound (i, chi, ri, ki, gi, ni, bi, mi, shi)
The negative form has an あ a sound (wa, ta, ra, ka, ga, na, ba, ma, sa)
The potential form has an え e sound (e, te, re, ke, ge, ne, be, me, se)
The volitional form has an おう ō sound (ō, tō, rō, kō, gō, nō, bō, mō, sō).

Basic Japanese Verbs 基本的な日本語の動詞

食べる (Taberu) - To eat
見る (Miru) - To watch
寝る (Neru) - To sleep
勉強する (Benkyou suru) - To study
読む (Yomu) - To read
飲む (Nomu) - To drink
歩く (Aruku) - To walk
座る (Suwaru) - To sit

これ / この (Kore / Kono) - "This" or "This _ (thing/person)"
それ / その (Sore / Sono) - "That / It" or "That _ (thing/person)"
あれ / あの (Are / Ano) - "That over there" or "That _ (thing/person) over there"
私 / 僕 (Watashi / Boku) - "I" (私 is gender neutral, while 僕 is masculine.)
彼 (Kare) - "He"
彼女 (Kanojo) - "She"
私たち (Watashitachi) - "We"
彼ら (Karera) - "They"

More:

います imasu
Meaning: to be; exist (used for animate objects, ie. people and animals)

Verb type: ichidan (て form -> いて ite)
Plain/ dictionary form: いる iru
Kanji?: 居る (note: the kanji is not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
Often used with the particle を or に

Interesting example sentences:

ねこはへやにいます。 neko wa heya ni imasu

The cat is in the room.

にわにいぬがいます。 niwa ni inu ga imasu

There is a dog in the garden.

Japanese Important Adverbs 日本語の重要な副詞


Popular Japanese Adverbs:

Useful adverbs:

いつも - always
よく - often
たいてい - usually
時々 【とき・どき】 - sometimes
たまに - rarely
全然 【ぜん・ぜん】 - not at all (when used with negative)
多分 【た・ぶん】 - probably, maybe
たくさん - a lot (amount)

When you want to boost your language skills, learning adverbs is important and certainly inevitable. Just like those in other languages, there are a variety of Japanese adverbs and they're frequently used in sentences. Japanese adverbs are quite similar to English adverbs, though there are some differences to keep in mind.

Frequency adverbs are often placed in front of the direct object. → watashi wa yoku biiru o nomi-masu. / I often drink beer

More Japanese Adverbs:

Meaning Reading Kanji Hiragana

1 today kyō 今日 きょう
2 yesterday kinō 昨日 きのう
3 tomorrow ashita 明日 あした
4 this morning kesa 今朝 けさ
5 tonight kon’ya 今夜 こんや
6 now ima いま
7 later ato de 後で あとで
8 soon sugu ni すぐに
9 right now ima sugu ni 今すぐに いますぐに
10 previously mae ni 前に まえに
11 recently saikin 最近 さいきん
12 someday itsuka いつか
13 yet mada まだ

Japanese Personal Pronouns 日本語の人称代名詞


Take a look at Japanese Personal pronouns.

Although the Japanese language does have personal pronouns (人代名詞 【じんだいめいし】), they are not as commonly used as in Western languages. Using personal pronouns puts a lot of stress on the subject and can often sound either self-centred or accusatory. Instead of using personal pronouns, the Japanese prefer to refer to another person by title or function, or by that person’s name.

There are several synonyms for each personal pronoun, often with different levels of politeness. Some personal pronouns are for exclusive used by women; others are exclusively used by men.

I / me watakushi Formal
- watashi Polite
- boku Informal / Masculine
- あたし atashi Informal / Feminine
- ore Rude - Masculine
you あなた anata Polite
- kimi Informal
- お前 o-mae Rude - Masculine
he, him kare -
she, her 彼女 kanojo -
he, him / she, her あの方 ano kata Formal
- - あの人 ano hito
we, us 私達 watakushitachi Formal
- 私達 watashitachi Polite
- 僕達 bokutachi Informal - Masculine
- あたし達 atashitachi Informal - Feminine
- 俺等 orera Rude - Masculine
you あなた方 anatagata -
- あなた達 anatatachi Polite
- 君達 kimitachi Informal
- お前等 o-maera Rude - Masculine
they, them あの方々 ano katagata Formal
- あの方達 ano katatachi Formal
- あの人達 ano hitotachi -
- 彼等 karera -
- 彼女達 kanojotachi All women

Japanese Grammar Particles 日本語の不変化詞


Japanese Grammar Particles 日本語の不変化詞

Take a look at useful particles in Japanese Grammar.

English grammar has articles and prepositions, but Japanese grammar has particles that follow a noun to show the noun’s function. Japanese particles denote such things as the topic of the sentence; the start point, end point, and direction of the action; the tools and means of the action; and even the subject and direct object of the sentence. Take a look at their English equivalents (if one exists), and their roles in language.

Japanese Types of Questions 日本語の質問の種類


Japanese Types of Questions 日本語の質問の種類

In Japanese, all questions Japanese end in the particle ka.

Ano hito wa dare desu ka. (Who is that person over there?)

Kore wa nan desu ka. (What is this?)

Are wa nan desu ka. (What is that over there?)

Are wa Fujisan desu ka. (Is that Mount Fuji?)

O-namae wa nan desu ka. (What is your name?)

Otearai wa doko desu ka. (Where is the restroom?)

Dochira kara kimashita ka. (Where are you from?)

Tanjôbi wa itsu desu ka. (When is your birthday?)

Itsu ikimasu ka. (When will you go [there]?)

Nan-ji ni shimarimasu ka. (What time do you close?)

Densha wa nan-ji nidemasu ka. (At what time does the train leave?)

Chekkuauto wa nan-ji desu ka. (When is checkout time?)

Kore wa ikura desu ka. (How much is this?)