Monday, May 9, 2022

Katakana ( 片仮名、カタカナ ) is a Japanese syllabary

Katakana ( 片仮名、カタカナ ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji). The word katakana means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived indeed from components or fragments of more complex kanji. Katakana and hiragana are both kana systems. With one or two minor exceptions, each syllable (strictly mora) in the Japanese language is represented by one character or kana in each system. Each kana represents either a vowel such as "a" (katakana ア); a consonant followed by a certain vowel such as "ka" (katakana カ); or "n" (katakana ン), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n or ng ([ŋ]) or like the nasal vowels of Portuguese or Galician.

In contrast to the hiragana syllabary, which is used for Japanese words not covered by kanji and for grammatical inflections, the katakana syllabary usage is certainly comparable to italics in English; specifically, it is used for transcription of foreign-language words into Japanese and the writing of loan words (collectively gairaigo). It is also used for emphasis, to represent onomatopoeia, for technical and scientific terms, and for names of plants, animals, minerals and often Japanese companies.

カタカナ(片仮名、カタカナ)は日本語の音節文字であり、ひらがな、漢字、場合によってはラテン字(ローマ字)とともに、日本語の書記体系の1つのコンポーネントです。カタカナという言葉は「断片的なかな」を意味します。カタカナの文字は、より複雑な漢字の構成要素または断片から実際に派生しているためです。カタカナとひらがなはどちらもかなシステムです。 1つまたは2つの小さな例外を除いて、日本語の各音節(厳密にはモーラ)は、各システムで1つの文字またはかなで表されます。各かなは、「a」(カタカナア)などの母音を表します。子音の後に「か」(カタカナか)などの特定の母音が続く。または「n」(カタカナ)、文脈に応じて、英語のm、n、ng([ŋ])、またはポルトガル語やガリシア語の鼻母音のように聞こえる鼻音。


Hiragana ( 平仮名, ひらがな ) is a Japanese syllabary

Hiragana ( 平仮名, ひらがな ) is a Japanese syllabary, part of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana as well as kanji.

It is a phonetic lettering system. The word hiragana literally means "flowing" or "simple" kana ("simple" originally as contrasted with kanji).

Hiragana and katakana are both indeed kana systems. With few small exceptions, each mora in the Japanese language is represented by one character (or one digraph) in each system. This may be either a vowel such as "a" (hiragana あ); a consonant followed by a vowel such as "ka" (か); or "n" (ん), a nasal sonorant which, depending on the context, sounds either like English m, n or ng ([ŋ]) when syllable-final or like the nasal vowels of French, Portuguese or Polish. Because the characters of the kana do not represent single consonants (except in the case of ん "n"), the kana are indeed referred to as syllabic symbols and not alphabetic letters.

Hiragana is used to write okurigana (kana suffixes following a kanji root, for example to inflect verbs and adjectives), various many grammatical and function words including particles, as well as miscellaneous other native words for which there are no kanji or whose kanji form is obscure or too formal for the writing purpose. Words that do have common kanji renditions may also sometimes be written instead in hiragana, according to an individual author's preference, for example to impart an informal feel. Hiragana is also used to write furigana, a reading aid that certanly shows the pronunciation of kanji characters.



ひらがなとカタカナはどちらも確かにかなシステムです。いくつかの小さな例外を除いて、日本語の各モーラは、各システムで1つの文字(または1つの有向グラフ)で表されます。これは、「a」(ひらがなあ)などの母音のいずれかです。子音の後に「ka」(か)などの母音が続きます。または「n」(ん)、文脈に応じて、音節の最後の場合は英語のm、n、またはng([ŋ])のように聞こえるか、フランス語、ポルトガル語、またはポーランド語の鼻母音のように聞こえます。かなの文字は単一の子音を表さないため(ん "n"の場合を除く)、かなは実際にはアルファベットではなく音節記号と呼ばれます。


Friday, February 11, 2022

This Small Japanese Town Is A UFO Hotspot この小さな日本の町はUFOのホットスポットです

VICE News Channel on Youtube shows that in a small Japanese town with desolate streets and shuttered storefronts, aliens are said to be frequent visitors.

A so-called unidentified flying object (UFO) is any perceived aerial phenomenon that cannot be immediately identified or explained. On investigation, most UFOs are identified as known objects or atmospheric phenomena, while a small number really remain unexplained.

Scientists and skeptic organizations such as the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry have provided prosaic explanations for a large number of claimed UFOs being caused by certain natural phenomena, human technology, delusions, or hoaxes. Small but vocal groups of "ufologists" favour unconventional, pseudoscientific hypotheses, some of which go beyond the typical extraterrestrial visitation claims and sometimes form part of so-called new religions.

It seems that unusual sightings have been reported in the sky throughout many times in human history. However, UFOs did not achieve their current cultural prominence until the period after World War II, escalating during the Space Age. The 20th century saw studies and investigations into UFO reports conducted by governments (such as Projects Grudge and Sign in the United States, and Project Condign in the United Kingdom). Various investigations have also been done by organisations and individuals.




科学者やサイコップ調査委員会などの懐疑的な組織は、特定の自然現象、人間の技術、妄想、またはいたずらによって引き起こされたと主張されている多数のUFOについて、無作法な説明を提供しています。 「UFO研究者」の小さいながらも声高なグループは、型にはまらない疑似科学的な仮説を支持します。そのいくつかは、典型的な地球外生命体の訪問の主張を超え、時にはいわゆる新宗教の一部を形成します。

人類の歴史の中で何度も空で異常な目撃が報告されているようです。しかし、UFOが宇宙時代の間にエスカレート、第二次世界大戦後の期間まで彼らの現在の文化的隆起を達成しませんでした。 20世紀には、政府(米国のプロジェクト・グラッジとサイン、英国のプロジェクト・コンディグンなど)によって実施されたUFOレポートの調査と調査が行われました。組織や個人によってもさまざまな調査が行われています。