Tuesday, February 16, 2021

Emotions in Japanese 日本語の感情


Emotions in Japanese 日本語の感情

Here are emotions in the Japanese language.
これが日本語の感情です。

Happy- Ureshii: うれしい; 嬉しい
Elated- Kozen: こうぜん
Angry- Ikaru: おこる or いかる; 怒る
Worried- Nayamu: なやむ; 悩む
Scared- Ojiru: おじる;怖じる
Terrified- Kyouzen: きょうぜん;境然
Relieved- Sutto: すうっと;
Bored- Tsumaranasou: つまらなそう; 詰まらなそう
Silly- Tawainai: たわいない; 他愛ない
Shocked- Akireru: あきれる; 呆れる
Annoyed- Urusagaru: うるさがる; 煩がる
Rushed- Soso: そうそう; 匆々
Excited- Gekko: げっこう; 激昂
Sad- Kanashi: かなしい; 悲しい
Lonely- Sabishi: さびしい; 寂しい
Lazy- Tsutsushimanai: つつしまない
Shy- Hazukashi: はずかしい; 恥ずかしい
Bashful- Shuchi: しゅうち; 羞恥
Eager- Setsutunaru: せつなる; 切なる
Calm- Nagoyaku: なごやく; あラカジめ
Relaxed- Arakajime: あらかじめ
Anxious- Anjiru: あんじる; 案じる
Condescending- Onkisegamashi: おんきせがましい; 恩着せがましい
Cautious- Sononai: そつのない; 卒のない
Confused- Magomago: まごまご

Japanese Verbs to Express Emotion:

Happiness:

笑わらう laugh
褒ほめる encourage
喜よろこぶ celebrate, to be jubilant, to have joy
好このむー to like/prefer

Sadness:

慰なぐさめる consoling someone
悲かなしむ feeling sad
泣なく cry

Anger:

怒おこる feeling angry
叱しかる scold

Bore, Shock, Gratitude:

あきる、飽あきる feeling disinterested, bored, tired or weary
驚おどろく to be astonished, to be surprised
感謝かんしゃするー feeling grateful
びっくりするー to feel surprised, amazed or frightened

Adjectives for Expressing Emotions in Japanese:

嬉うれしい happy
悲かなしい sad
恥はずかしい ー shy
寂さびしい、淋しい lonely
怖こわい、恐い scary
辛つらい painful, heart-breaking
苦くるしい difficult, agonizing, feeling forced
懐なつかしい to endear, desire or miss something

Basic Japanese Questions and Answers 日本語の基本的な質問と回答


Basic Japanese Questions and Answers 日本語の基本的な質問と回答

Basic 基本
Questions 質問
Answers 回答

Here are the most common Japanese questions and answers.

There are no question marks in standard writing. Thus, "か" or "Ka" ending imply that the sentence is a question.

In speech, the "Ka" can be dropped to turn the question into a very casual one.

1. Asking "What’s your name?" in Japanese

名前は何ですか。
Namae wa nan desu ka?

Super Polite:
(name) と申します。
(name) to moushimasu.
I am (name).

2. Where are you from?

出身はどこですか。
Shusshin wa doko desu ka?

3. Where do you live?

どこに住んでいますか。
Doko ni sunde imasu ka?

4. What’s your job (occupation)?

仕事は何ですか。
Shigoto wa nan desu ka?

5. Can you speak Japanese?

日本語を話せますか。
Nihongo wo hanasemasu ka?

6. How long have you been studying Japanese for?

どのくらい日本語を勉強していますか。
Dono kurai nihongo wo benkyou shite imasu ka?

7. Where have you learned Japanese?

どこで日本語を学びましたか。
Doko de nihongo wo manabimashita ka?

8. Can you eat Japanese food?

日本食が食べられますか。
Nihon shoku ga taberaremasu ka?

9. Do you like Japanese food?

日本食が好きですか。
Nihon shoku ga suki desuka?

10. Asking "How is it?" in Japanese

どうですか。
Dou desu ka?

Numbers in Japanese 日本語の数字


Numbers in Japanese 日本語の数字

Number 数
Numeral 数字
Writing 書き込み
Same 同じ
Follow フォローする
Group グループ
Important 重要
Horizontal 水平
Vertical 垂直

The Japanese numerals are the number names used in Japanese. In writing, they are the same as the Chinese numerals, and the grouping of large numbers follows the Chinese tradition of grouping by 10,000. Two pronunciations are used: the Sino-Japanese (on'yomi) readings of the Chinese characters and the Japanese yamato kotoba (native words, kun'yomi readings).

There are 2 important ways of writing the numbers in Japanese: in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) or in Chinese numerals (一, 二, 三). The Arabic numerals are certainly more often used in horizontal writing, and the Chinese numerals are more common in vertical writing.

Number Character

0 零 / 〇
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20 二十
30 三十
40 四十
50 五十
60 六十
70 七十
80 八十
90 九十
100
500 五百
800 八百
1,000
10,000
100,000,000
1,000,000,000,000
10,000,000,000,000,000

Japanese Verbs and Tenses 日本語の動詞と時制


Japanese Verbs and Tenses 日本語の動詞と時制

Verb 動詞
Tense 時制
Conjugation 活用
Regular レギュラー
Irregular 不規則
Dictionary 辞書
Original 元の

Japanese verb conjugations are interesting. See the list of Japanese verb conjugations. Almost all of these are regular, but there are a few Japanese irregular verbs, and the conjugations of the few irregular verbs are also listed. Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The present plain form (the dictionary form) of all verbs ends in u. In modern Japanese, there are no verbs that end in fu, pu, or yu, no verbs ending in zu other than certain する forms (such as 禁ず kin-zu), and 死ぬ (しぬ, shinu; to die) is the only one ending in nu in the dictionary form.

When a verb is conjugated it adopts a so called "form". Forms change depending on the tense, mode, and suffix of the verb's stem. The stem of the verb is the prefix that is unchanging in the conjugation.

For example in the following infinitive (aka dictionary) forms of these verbs the stem is in bold:

iku (行く): To go
taberu (食べる) To eat
Verb conjugates are often grouped into two categories, according to whether the last letter of the stem is a vowel or consonant (when romanized)

Type I: consonant-stems (五段動詞, godandōshi), and
Type II: vowel-stems (一段動詞, ichidandōshi, いる iru,える eru forms).
For conjugating type I verbs the suffix of the infinitive form is replaced by a different sound according to the original suffix, then a suffix which is consistent by tense is added.

The infinitive form of a type I verb has an う u sound (u, tsu, ru, ku, gu, nu, bu, mu, su)
The polite ~ます -masu form has an い i sound (i, chi, ri, ki, gi, ni, bi, mi, shi)
The negative form has an あ a sound (wa, ta, ra, ka, ga, na, ba, ma, sa)
The potential form has an え e sound (e, te, re, ke, ge, ne, be, me, se)
The volitional form has an おう ō sound (ō, tō, rō, kō, gō, nō, bō, mō, sō).

Japanese Possessive Adjectives 日本の所有格形容詞


Japanese Possessive Adjectives 日本の所有格形容詞

The possessive adjectives are my, your, his, her, its, our, their, and whose. A possessive adjective sits before a noun (or a pronoun) to show who or what owns it.

所有格形容詞は、my、your、his、her、its、our、their、whose. 所有格形容詞は、名詞(または代名詞)の前にあり、所有者または所有者を示します。


Adjectives 形容詞
Possessive Adjectives 所有格形容詞

The Japanese language has different ways of expressing the possessive relation. There are several "verbal possessive" forms based on verbs with the sense of "to possess" or "to have" or "to own". An alternative is the use of the particle no (の) between two nouns or noun phrases.

Some Sentence Examples: いくつかの文の例:

ジョンさんが車を所有している John-san ga kuruma wo shoyuushite iru: "John has a car" (lit. "John car possess be.")

ジョンさんが犬を飼っている(持っている) John-san ga inu wo motte iru: "John has a dog" (lit. "John dog hold be.").

watashi no te
私の手 me NO hand
'My hand.'

jon no kuruma
  ジョンの車 John NO car
'John's car.'

watashi no inu no beddo...
  私のいぬのベッド me NO dog NO bed...
'My dog's bed...'

watashi no okasan
  私のお母さん me NO mother
'My mother.'

jon no ani
  ジョンの兄 John NO big brother
'John's big brother'

kore wa jon no mono desu
  これはジョンの物です this SUB John NO one COP
‘This is John’s one.’

kore wa jon no Ø desu
  これはジョンの~です this SUB John NO Ø COP
‘This is John’s.’

kore wa merii no Ø desu ga, are wa jon Ø desu
  これはメリーの~ですがあれはジョン~です this SUB Mary NO Ø COP but, that SUB John Ø COP
‘This is Mary’s, but that is John’s.’

watashi ga hoshii no wa merii no Ø desu
  me SUB want NOM OBJ Mary NO Ø COP
‘What I want is Mary’s.’

Useful Japanese Phrases 便利な日本語フレーズ


You will enjoy reading these Basic Japanese Phrases.
これらの基本的な日本語のフレーズをお楽しみいただけます。

phrase
フレーズ

Hai. Yes.
はい。

Iie. No.
いいえ。

O-negai shimasu. Please.
おねがいします。

Arigatō. Thank you.
ありがとう。

Dōitashimashite. You're welcome.
どういたしまして。

Sumimasen. Excuse me.
すみません。

Gomennasai. I am sorry.
ごめんなさい。

Ohayō gozaimasu. Good morning.
おはようございます。

Konbanwa. Good evening.
こんばんは。

O-yasumi nasai. Good night.
おやすみなさい。

Japanese Phrases for Meeting and Greeting:

Eigo o hanasemasu ka. Do you speak English?
えいごをはなせますか。

Koko ni eigo o hanaseru hito wa imasu ka. Does anyone here speak English?
ここに えいごおはなせるひとはいますか。

Watashi wa nihongo ga sukoshi shika hanasemasen. I only speak a little Japanese.
わたしは にほんごがすこししか はなせません。

O-namae wa nan desu ka. What is your name?
おなまえはなんですか。

Watashi no namae wa Kaori desu. My name is Kaorii.
わたしのなまえは かおりです。

O-genki desu ka. How are you?
おげんきですか。

Genki desu. I'm fine. Thank you.
げんきです。

Oaidekite ureshī desu. I am very glad to meet you.
おあいできて うれしいです。

Wakarimasen. I don't understand.
わかりません。

Nante iimashita ka. What did you say?
なんていいましたか。

Motto yukkuri hanashite kudasai. Can you speak more slowly?
もっと ゆっくりはなしてください。

Yoku wakarimasu. I understand you perfectly.
よくわかります。

Japanese Dialog:

Sumisu-san:

Oha yō gozaimasu. Good morning.

おはようございます。

Eigo o hanasemasu ka. Do you speak English?

えいごをはなせますか。

Ten-in:

Sumimasen. I'm sorry.

すみません。

Eigo wa hanasemasen. I do not speak English.

えいごは はなせません。

Sumisu-san:

Watashi wa nihongo ga sukoshi shika hanasemasen. Unfortunately, I speak only a little Japanese.

わたしは にほんごがすこししかはなせません。

Ten-in:

Dai jōbu desu. That's all right.

だいじょうぶです。

Wakarimasu. I understand you.

わかります。

Main Japanese Pronouns 主な日本語代名詞


  • これ / この (Kore / Kono) – “This” or “This _ (thing/person)”
  • それ / その (Sore / Sono) – “That / It” or “That _ (thing/person)”
  • あれ / あの (Are / Ano) – “That over there” or “That _ (thing/person) over there”
  • 私 / 僕 (Watashi / Boku) – “I” (私 is gender neutral, while 僕 is masculine.)
  • 彼 (Kare) – “He”
  • 彼女 (Kanojo) – “She”
  • 私たち (Watashitachi) – “We”
  • 彼ら (Karera) – “They”
A A pronoun (I, me, he, she, herself, you, it, that, they, each, few, many, who, whoever, whose, someone, everybody, etc.) is a word that takes the place of a noun. In the sentence Joe saw Jill, and he waved at her, the pronouns he and her take the place of Joe and Jill, respectively.

代名詞(私、私、彼、彼女、彼女自身、あなた、それ、それ、彼ら、それぞれ、少数、多く、誰、誰、誰、誰か、みんななど)は名詞の代わりになる単語です 。 ジョーがジルを見た文の中で、彼は彼女に手を振った。彼と彼女の代名詞はそれぞれジョーとジルの代わりになっている。