Thursday, October 21, 2021

Japan’s 400 Kilometre Tsunami Shield 日本の400キロメートルの津波シールド

"The B1M" Channel on Youtube shows one of the most important pieces of concrete in Japan.

Keep in mind, the geophysical effects that Japan has. Portions of northeastern Japan shifted by as much as 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) closer to North America, making some sections of Japan's landmass wider than before. Those areas of Japan closest to the epicenter experienced the largest shifts. A 400-kilometre (250 mi) stretch of coastline dropped vertically by 0.6 metres (2 ft 0 in), allowing the tsunami to travel farther and faster onto land. One early estimate suggested that the Pacific plate may have moved westward by up to 20 metres (66 ft), and another early estimate put the amount of slippage at as much as 40 m (130 ft). On 6 April the Japanese coast guard said that the quake shifted the seabed near the epicenter 24 metres (79 ft) and elevated the seabed off the coast of Miyagi Prefecture by 3 metres (9.8 ft).

The 9.1-magnitude (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) in the north-western Pacific Ocean at a relatively shallow depth of 32 km (20 mi), with its epicenter approximately 72 km (45 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, Japan, lasting approximately six minutes.


日本が持つ地球物理学的影響を覚えておいてください。日本北東部の一部は、北米に2.4メートル(7フィート10インチ)も近づき、日本の陸地の一部が以前よりも広くなりました。震源地に最も近い日本のこれらの地域は、最大の変化を経験しました。 400キロメートル(250マイル)の海岸線が垂直方向に0.6メートル(2フィート0インチ)下がったため、津波はさらに速く陸地に移動することができました。ある初期の推定では、太平洋プレートが最大20メートル(66フィート)西に移動した可能性があり、別の初期の推定では、滑りの量は最大40メートル(130フィート)でした。 4月6日、日本の沿岸警備隊は、地震により震源近くの海底が24メートル(79フィート)移動し、宮城県沖の海底が3メートル(9.8フィート)上昇したと述べた。

マグニチュード9.1(Mw)の海底巨大地震は、2011年3月11日14:46 JST(05:46 UTC)に、太平洋北西部の比較的浅い深さ32 km(20 mi)で発生し、震源地は約日本の東北地方太平洋沖地震の牡鹿半島の東72km(45マイル)、約6分間続きます。

Sunday, October 10, 2021

Occupations in Japanese 日本語の職業

Occupations in Japanese 日本語の職業

Kanji - Hiragana or Katakana - Romaji - Meaning

01. 職業 しょくぎょう shoku gyou Occupation
02. 医者 いしゃ isha Doctor
03. 看護婦 かんごふ kango fu Female Nurse
04. 看護師 かんごし kango shi Nurse
05. 歯科医 しかい shikai Dentist
06. 科学者 かがくしゃ kagaku sha Scientist
07. 美容師 びようし biyou shi Hairdresser / Beauty Artist
08. 教師 きょうし kyoushi Teacher
09. 先生 せんせい sensei Teacher
10. 歌手 かしゅ kashu Singer
11. 運転手 うんてんしゅ unten shu Driver / Chauffeur
12. 野球選手 やきゅうせんしゅ yakyuu senshu Baseball Player
13. サッカー選手 サッカーせんしゅ sakka- senshu Soccer Player
14. 画家 がか gaka Painter / Artist
15. 芸術家 げいじゅつか geijutsu ka Artist
16. 写真家 しゃしんか shashin ka Photographer
17. 作家 さっか sakka Author / Writer
18. 演説家 えんぜつか enzetsu ka Speaker / Orator
19. 演奏家 えんそうか ensou ka Performing Musician
20. 演出家 えんしゅつか enshutsu ka Producer / Director
21. 建築家 けんちくか kenchiku ka Architect
22. 政治家 せいじか seiji ka Politician
23. 警官 けいかん kei kan Policeman
24. 警察官 けいさつかん keisatsu kan Policeman
25. お巡りさん おまわりさん omawari san Policeman (Friendly term)
26. コック kokku Cook
27. シェフ shefu Chef
28. 調理師 ちょうりし chouri shi Cook / Chef
29. 料理人 りょうりにん ryouri nin Cook / Chef
30. 料理長 りょうりちょう ryouri chou Head Chef / Master Chef
31. 裁判官 さいばんかん saiban kan Judge
32. 弁護士 べんごし bengo shi Lawyer / Attorney
33. 会計士 かいけいし kaikei shi Accountant
34. 消防士 しょうぼうし shoubou shi Firefighter / Fireman
35. 兵士 へいし hei shi Soldier
36. 銀行員 ぎんこういん ginkou in Bank Employee
37. 公務員 こうむいん koumu in Civil Servant / Government Worker
38. 駅員 えきいん eki in Station Worker / Station Attendant
39. 店員 てんいん ten in Shop Assistant
40. 会社員 かいしゃいん kaisha in Company Employee
41. 警備員 けいびいん keibi in Security Guard
42. 研究員 けんきゅういん kenkyuu in Researcher
43. 派遣社員 はけんしゃいん hakensha in Temporary Worker
44. 秘書 ひしょ hisho Secretary
45. サラリーマン sarari-man Salary man / Salaried Employee
46. フリーター furi-ta- Part-time Worker
47. OL オーエル o- eru Office Lady / Female Office Worker
48. 俳優 はいゆう haiyuu Actor / Performer
49. 女優 じょゆう joyuu Actress
50. 役者 やくしゃ yakusha Actor / Actress / Performer
51. 監督 かんとく kantoku Movie Director
52. 監督 かんとく kantoku Sport's Coach
53. 監督 かんとく kantoku Supervisor / Superintendent
54. 占い師 うらないし uranai shi Fortuneteller / Diviner
55. 牧師 ぼくし boku shi Pastor / Clergyman
56. 漁師 りょうし ryou shi Fisherman
57. 猟師 りょうし ryou shi Hunter
58. 理髪師 りはつし rihatsu shi Barber
59. 散髪屋 さんぱつや sanpatsuya Barber
60. 床屋 とこや tokoya Barber
61. 講師 こうし kou shi Lecturer
62. 技師 ぎし gi shi Engineer / Technologist
63. 教授 きょうじゅ kyouju Professor
64. エンジニア enjinia Engineer
65. 大工 だいく daiku Carpenter
66. 探偵 たんてい tantei Detective
67. スチュワーデス suchuwa-desu Stewardess / Female Flight Attendant
68. パイロット pairotto Pilot
69. 機長 きちょう kichou Pilot / Plane Captain
70. 添乗員 てんじょういん tenjouin Tour Conductor / Tour Guide
71. 不動産業者 ふどうさんぎょうしゃ fudousan gyousha Real Estate Agent
72. 記者 きしゃ kisha Reporter
73. ジャーナリスト ja-narisuto Journalist
74. 農民 のうみん noumin Farmer
75. 無職者 むしょくしゃ mushoku sha Unemployed Person
76. リストラ risutora Restructure / Corporate Downsizing
77. 過労死 かろうし karoushi Death from Overwork

Saturday, October 9, 2021

Interesting Common Japanese Verbs 興味深い一般的な日本語の動詞

Japanese Verbs and Tenses 日本語の動詞と時制

These are really pretty useful Japanese Verbs:

食べる (Taberu) - To eat. Example sentence 私はケーキを食べる(Watashi wa keeki o taberu) literally "I will eat cake!"
見る (Miru) - To watch
寝る (Neru) - To sleep
勉強する (Benkyou suru) - To study
読む (Yomu) - To read
飲む (Nomu) - To drink
歩く (Aruku) - To walk
座る (Suwaru) - To sit

Verb 動詞
Tense 時制
Conjugation 活用
Regular レギュラー
Irregular 不規則
Dictionary 辞書
Original 元の

Japanese verb conjugations are interesting. See the list of Japanese verb conjugations. Almost all of these are regular, but there are a few Japanese irregular verbs, and the conjugations of the few irregular verbs are also listed. Japanese verb conjugation is the same for all subjects, first person ("I", "we"), second person ("you") and third person ("he/she/it" and "they"), singular and plural. The present plain form (the dictionary form) of all verbs ends in u. In modern Japanese, there are no verbs that end in fu, pu, or yu, no verbs ending in zu other than certain する forms (such as 禁ず kin-zu), and 死ぬ (しぬ, shinu; to die) is the only one ending in nu in the dictionary form.

When a verb is conjugated it adopts a so called "form". Forms change depending on the tense, mode, and suffix of the verb's stem. The stem of the verb is the prefix that is unchanging in the conjugation.

For example in the following infinitive (aka dictionary) forms of these verbs the stem is in bold:

iku (行く): To go
taberu (食べる) To eat
Verb conjugates are often grouped into two categories, according to whether the last letter of the stem is a vowel or consonant (when romanized)

Type I: consonant-stems (五段動詞, godandōshi), and
Type II: vowel-stems (一段動詞, ichidandōshi, いる iru,える eru forms).
For conjugating type I verbs the suffix of the infinitive form is replaced by a different sound according to the original suffix, then a suffix which is consistent by tense is added.

The infinitive form of a type I verb has an う u sound (u, tsu, ru, ku, gu, nu, bu, mu, su)
The polite ~ます -masu form has an い i sound (i, chi, ri, ki, gi, ni, bi, mi, shi)
The negative form has an あ a sound (wa, ta, ra, ka, ga, na, ba, ma, sa)
The potential form has an え e sound (e, te, re, ke, ge, ne, be, me, se)
The volitional form has an おう ō sound (ō, tō, rō, kō, gō, nō, bō, mō, sō).

Basic Japanese Verbs 基本的な日本語の動詞

食べる (Taberu) - To eat
見る (Miru) - To watch
寝る (Neru) - To sleep
勉強する (Benkyou suru) - To study
読む (Yomu) - To read
飲む (Nomu) - To drink
歩く (Aruku) - To walk
座る (Suwaru) - To sit

これ / この (Kore / Kono) - "This" or "This _ (thing/person)"
それ / その (Sore / Sono) - "That / It" or "That _ (thing/person)"
あれ / あの (Are / Ano) - "That over there" or "That _ (thing/person) over there"
私 / 僕 (Watashi / Boku) - "I" (私 is gender neutral, while 僕 is masculine.)
彼 (Kare) - "He"
彼女 (Kanojo) - "She"
私たち (Watashitachi) - "We"
彼ら (Karera) - "They"


います imasu
Meaning: to be; exist (used for animate objects, ie. people and animals)

Verb type: ichidan (て form -> いて ite)
Plain/ dictionary form: いる iru
Kanji?: 居る (note: the kanji is not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
Often used with the particle を or に

Interesting example sentences:

ねこはへやにいます。 neko wa heya ni imasu

The cat is in the room.

にわにいぬがいます。 niwa ni inu ga imasu

There is a dog in the garden.

Japanese Important Adverbs 日本語の重要な副詞

Popular Japanese Adverbs:

Useful adverbs:

いつも - always
よく - often
たいてい - usually
時々 【とき・どき】 - sometimes
たまに - rarely
全然 【ぜん・ぜん】 - not at all (when used with negative)
多分 【た・ぶん】 - probably, maybe
たくさん - a lot (amount)

When you want to boost your language skills, learning adverbs is important and certainly inevitable. Just like those in other languages, there are a variety of Japanese adverbs and they're frequently used in sentences. Japanese adverbs are quite similar to English adverbs, though there are some differences to keep in mind.

Frequency adverbs are often placed in front of the direct object. → watashi wa yoku biiru o nomi-masu. / I often drink beer

More Japanese Adverbs:

Meaning Reading Kanji Hiragana

1 today kyō 今日 きょう
2 yesterday kinō 昨日 きのう
3 tomorrow ashita 明日 あした
4 this morning kesa 今朝 けさ
5 tonight kon’ya 今夜 こんや
6 now ima いま
7 later ato de 後で あとで
8 soon sugu ni すぐに
9 right now ima sugu ni 今すぐに いますぐに
10 previously mae ni 前に まえに
11 recently saikin 最近 さいきん
12 someday itsuka いつか
13 yet mada まだ

Japanese Personal Pronouns 日本語の人称代名詞

Take a look at Japanese Personal pronouns.

Although the Japanese language does have personal pronouns (人代名詞 【じんだいめいし】), they are not as commonly used as in Western languages. Using personal pronouns puts a lot of stress on the subject and can often sound either self-centred or accusatory. Instead of using personal pronouns, the Japanese prefer to refer to another person by title or function, or by that person’s name.

There are several synonyms for each personal pronoun, often with different levels of politeness. Some personal pronouns are for exclusive used by women; others are exclusively used by men.

I / me watakushi Formal
- watashi Polite
- boku Informal / Masculine
- あたし atashi Informal / Feminine
- ore Rude - Masculine
you あなた anata Polite
- kimi Informal
- お前 o-mae Rude - Masculine
he, him kare -
she, her 彼女 kanojo -
he, him / she, her あの方 ano kata Formal
- - あの人 ano hito
we, us 私達 watakushitachi Formal
- 私達 watashitachi Polite
- 僕達 bokutachi Informal - Masculine
- あたし達 atashitachi Informal - Feminine
- 俺等 orera Rude - Masculine
you あなた方 anatagata -
- あなた達 anatatachi Polite
- 君達 kimitachi Informal
- お前等 o-maera Rude - Masculine
they, them あの方々 ano katagata Formal
- あの方達 ano katatachi Formal
- あの人達 ano hitotachi -
- 彼等 karera -
- 彼女達 kanojotachi All women

Japanese Grammar Particles 日本語の不変化詞

Japanese Grammar Particles 日本語の不変化詞

Take a look at useful particles in Japanese Grammar.

English grammar has articles and prepositions, but Japanese grammar has particles that follow a noun to show the noun’s function. Japanese particles denote such things as the topic of the sentence; the start point, end point, and direction of the action; the tools and means of the action; and even the subject and direct object of the sentence. Take a look at their English equivalents (if one exists), and their roles in language.

Japanese Types of Questions 日本語の質問の種類

Japanese Types of Questions 日本語の質問の種類

In Japanese, all questions Japanese end in the particle ka.

Ano hito wa dare desu ka. (Who is that person over there?)

Kore wa nan desu ka. (What is this?)

Are wa nan desu ka. (What is that over there?)

Are wa Fujisan desu ka. (Is that Mount Fuji?)

O-namae wa nan desu ka. (What is your name?)

Otearai wa doko desu ka. (Where is the restroom?)

Dochira kara kimashita ka. (Where are you from?)

Tanjôbi wa itsu desu ka. (When is your birthday?)

Itsu ikimasu ka. (When will you go [there]?)

Nan-ji ni shimarimasu ka. (What time do you close?)

Densha wa nan-ji nidemasu ka. (At what time does the train leave?)

Chekkuauto wa nan-ji desu ka. (When is checkout time?)

Kore wa ikura desu ka. (How much is this?)

Numbers in Japanese 日本語の数字

Numbers in Japanese 日本語の数字

You can learn how to say 1 - 100+ with Japanese numbers.

1: 一 (いち ichi‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‎, ichi)
2: 二 (に ni‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, ni)
3: 三 (さん san‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, san)
4: 四 (よん yon‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ / し shi‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, yon or shi)
5: 五 (ご go‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, go)
6: 六 (ろく roku‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, roku)
7: 七 (なな nana‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ / しち shichi‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, nana or shichi)
8: 八 (はち hachi‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, hachi)
9: 九 (く ku‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ / きゅう kyuu‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, ku or kyuu)
10: 十 (じゅう juu‎‎‏‏‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎ ‎‏‏‎, juu)

Once you memorize these 10, counting to 100 is easy!

However, keep in mind: three numbers have two different readings: 4, 7, and 9.

The numbers 4 and 9 are considered unlucky in Japanese because し (shi) and く (ku) sound the same as the words for death (死, shi) and agony (苦, ku). Therefore, Japanese people avoid using those readings whenever possible.

Even though 7 is a lucky number, it’s reading しち (shichi) also has し so it's more common to say なな (nana).

For "zero", the Japanese word is 零 (rei), but it's more common to say it like in English. ゼロ (zero) is most often used, or まる (maru) which means "circle" and is like saying "oh" in English instead of zero.

Count to 100 in Japanese: Here’s how that looks:

11 is 十一 (juuichi): 10 + 1 12 is 十二 (juuni): 10 + 2

and so on up to 19.

Once you get to twenty, it’s the same concept, but you start by counting the 10s:

20 is 二十 (nijuu): 2 10’s 21 is 二十一 (nijuuichi): 2 10's + 1

and so on, up to 99.

Kanji Kana + Romaji
1 いち (ichi)
2 に (ni)
3 さん (san)
4 よん (yon)
5 ご (go)
6 ろく (roku)
7 なな (nana)
8 はち (hachi)
9 きゅう (kyuu)
10 じゅう (juu)
100 ひゃく (hyaku)
1,000 せん (sen)
10,000 まん (man)
100,000 十万 じゅうまん (juuman)
1,000,000 百万 ひゃくまん (hyakuman)
10,000,000 千万 せんまん (senman)
100,000,000 一億 いちおく (ichioku)
1,000,000,000 十億 じゅうおく (juuoku)
1,000,000,000,000 一兆 いっちょう (icchou)

Useful Japanese Popular Adjectives 便利な日本の人気形容詞

Useful Japanese Popular Adjectives 便利な日本の人気形容詞

Here are some useful Japanese adjectives and their pronunciations:

big. ookii. 大きい
small. chiisai. 小さい
long. nagai. 長い
short. mijikai. 短い
thick, fat. futoi. 太い
slender (person) yaseta. やせた
thin. usui. 薄い

Emotions in Japanese 日本語の感情

Here are emotions in the Japanese language.

Happy- Ureshii: うれしい; 嬉しい
Elated- Kozen: こうぜん
Angry- Ikaru: おこる or いかる; 怒る
Worried- Nayamu: なやむ; 悩む
Scared- Ojiru: おじる;怖じる
Terrified- Kyouzen: きょうぜん;境然
Relieved- Sutto: すうっと;
Bored- Tsumaranasou: つまらなそう; 詰まらなそう
Silly- Tawainai: たわいない; 他愛ない
Shocked- Akireru: あきれる; 呆れる
Annoyed- Urusagaru: うるさがる; 煩がる
Rushed- Soso: そうそう; 匆々
Excited- Gekko: げっこう; 激昂
Sad- Kanashi: かなしい; 悲しい
Lonely- Sabishi: さびしい; 寂しい
Lazy- Tsutsushimanai: つつしまない
Shy- Hazukashi: はずかしい; 恥ずかしい
Bashful- Shuchi: しゅうち; 羞恥
Eager- Setsutunaru: せつなる; 切なる
Calm- Nagoyaku: なごやく; あラカジめ
Relaxed- Arakajime: あらかじめ
Anxious- Anjiru: あんじる; 案じる
Condescending- Onkisegamashi: おんきせがましい; 恩着せがましい
Cautious- Sononai: そつのない; 卒のない
Confused- Magomago: まごまご

Japanese Verbs to Express Emotion:


笑わらう laugh
褒ほめる encourage
喜よろこぶ celebrate, to be jubilant, to have joy
好このむー to like/prefer


慰なぐさめる consoling someone
悲かなしむ feeling sad
泣なく cry


怒おこる feeling angry
叱しかる scold

Bore, Shock, Gratitude:

あきる、飽あきる feeling disinterested, bored, tired or weary
驚おどろく to be astonished, to be surprised
感謝かんしゃするー feeling grateful
びっくりするー to feel surprised, amazed or frightened

Adjectives for Expressing Emotions in Japanese:

嬉うれしい happy
悲かなしい sad
恥はずかしい ー shy
寂さびしい、淋しい lonely
怖こわい、恐い scary
辛つらい painful, heart-breaking
苦くるしい difficult, agonizing, feeling forced
懐なつかしい to endear, desire or miss something

Japanese Personal Pronouns 日本語の人称代名詞

In modern Japanese there are 8 1st personal pronouns: watakushi, atakushi, watashi, atashi, washi, boku, ore, jibun, although atakushi, washi and jibun are becoming old-fashioned.

The first person pronouns (e.g. watashi, 私) and second person pronouns (e.g. anata, 貴方) are certainly used in formal situations. In many sentences, when an English speaker would use the pronouns "I" and "you", they are omitted in Japanese. Personal pronouns can sure be left out when it is clear who the speaker is talking about.

Some Japanese personal pronouns:

Romaji - Hiragana - Kanji - Level of speech - Gender - Notes


watashi わたし formal/informal all In formal or polite contexts, this is gender neutral; in casual speech, it is typically only used by women. Use by men in casual contexts may be perceived as stiff.

watakushi わたくし very formal all The most formal personal pronoun. Outdated curriculums did not provide for any other kind of pronoun in everyday speech for foreigners, except for watakushi. But in modern student books, such a pronoun has been withdrawn from use.

ware われ 我, 吾 very formal all Used in literary style writing. Also used as rude second person in western dialects.

waga わが 我が very formal all Means "my" or "our". Used in speeches and formalities; 我が社 waga-sha (our company) or 我が国 waga-kuni (our country).

ore おれ informal males Frequently used by men. Establishes a sense of "masculinity". Can be seen as rude depending on the context. Emphasizes one's own status when used with peers and with those who are younger or of lesser status. Among close friends or family, its use conveys familiarity rather than "masculinity" or superiority. It was used also by women until the late Edo period and still is in some dialects. Also oi in Kyushu dialect.

Japanese Grammar 日本語文法 "not only" ... "but also"

Japanese Grammar 日本語文法 "not only" ... "but also"

〜だけではなく、〜も not only ..., but also...

Useful Example Sentences:

Noun: 林先生は日本だけでなく、かん国にも行かれました。 Hayashi-sensei went not only to Japan but also to Korea.

い-adj: あのテストはむずかしかっただけでなく、長すぎました。That test was not only difficult, but it was also too long.

な-adj: あの人は変なだけでなく、とてもうるさいですね。 That person is not only strange, but is also noisy.

Verb: クラスへ行くだけでなく、しゅくだいもしなければいけない。 You should not only attend the class, but you should also do the homework.

Basic Japanese Verbs 基本的な日本語の動詞

Basic Japanese Verbs 基本的な日本語の動詞

食べる (Taberu) - To eat
見る (Miru) - To watch
寝る (Neru) - To sleep
勉強する (Benkyou suru) - To study
読む (Yomu) - To read
飲む (Nomu) - To drink
歩く (Aruku) - To walk
座る (Suwaru) - To sit

これ / この (Kore / Kono) - "This" or "This _ (thing/person)"
それ / その (Sore / Sono) - "That / It" or "That _ (thing/person)"
あれ / あの (Are / Ano) - "That over there" or "That _ (thing/person) over there"
私 / 僕 (Watashi / Boku) - "I" (私 is gender neutral, while 僕 is masculine.)
彼 (Kare) - "He"
彼女 (Kanojo) - "She"
私たち (Watashitachi) - "We"
彼ら (Karera) - "They"


います imasu
Meaning: to be; exist (used for animate objects, ie. people and animals)

Verb type: ichidan (て form -> いて ite)
Plain/ dictionary form: いる iru
Kanji?: 居る (note: the kanji is not often used and you will most likely see it in hiragana only)
Often used with the particle を or に

Interesting example sentences:

ねこはへやにいます。 neko wa heya ni imasu

The cat is in the room.

にわにいぬがいます。 niwa ni inu ga imasu

There is a dog in the garden.