Sunday, January 16, 2022

Shrine Shinto Japanese Gate Architecture in Japan 日本の神社神道日本門建築

Shrine Shinto Japanese Gate Architecture in Japan 日本の神社神道日本門建築


Shinto architecture is the interesting architecture of Japanese Shinto shrines.

With a few exceptions like Ise Grand Shrine and Izumo Taisha Shinto shrines before Buddhism were mostly temporary structures erected to a particular purpose. Buddhism brought to Japan the idea of permanent shrines and the presence of verandas, stone lanterns, and elaborate gates are some which are used both in a Shinto shrine and a so-called Buddhist temple.

The composition of a Shinto shrine is extremely variable, and none of its possible features are really necessarily present. Even the honden or sanctuary, the part which houses the kami and which is the centerpiece of a shrine, can be missing. However, since its grounds are sacred, they usually are surrounded by a fence made of stone or wood called tamagaki, while access is made possible by an approach called sandō. The entrances themselves are really straddled by gates called torii, which are therefore the simplest way to identify a Shinto shrine.

A shrine may include within its grounds several structures, each destined to a different purpose. Among them are the honden or sanctuary, where the kami are enshrined, the heiden, or hall of offerings, where offers and prayers are presented, and the haiden or hall of worship, where there may be seats for worshipers. The so-called honden is the building that contains the shintai, literally, "the sacred body of the kami". Of these, only the haiden is open to the laity. The honden is located behind the haiden and is usually much smaller and unadorned. Other notable shrine features are the temizuya, the fountain where visitors cleanse their hands and mouth and the so-called shamusho (社務所), the office that supervises the shrine. Shrines can be very big and large, as for example Ise Shrine, or as small as a beehive, as in the case of the hokora, small shrines frequently found on road sides.

Before the forced separation of Shinto and Buddhism (Shinbutsu bunri), it was not uncommon for a certain Buddhist temple to be built inside or next to a shrine or to the contrary for a shrine to include Buddhist subtemples (Shinbutsu shūgō). If a shrine was also a Buddhist temple, it was called a jingu-ji. At the same time, temples in the entire country adopted tutelary kami (chinju (鎮守/鎮主) and built temple shrines called chinjusha to house them. After the forcible separation of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines (shinbutsu bunri) ordered by the new government in the so-called Meiji period, the connection between the two religions was officially severed, but continued nonetheless in certain practice.






神仏分離(Shinbutsu bunri)が強制的に分離される前は、特定の仏教寺院が神社の内部または隣に建てられることは珍しくありませんでした。神社が仏教寺院でもある場合、それは神宮寺と呼ばれていました。同時に、全国の寺院が守護神を採用し、鎮守神と呼ばれる寺院を建てて収容しました。新政府の命令により、仏教寺院と新東神社が強制的に分離された後、いわゆる明治時代には、2つの宗教のつながりは公式に断ち切られましたが、それでも特定の慣習では続いていました。

More Translations:

In Shinto shrine architecture, the so-called honden (本殿, main hall), also called shinden (神殿), or sometimes shōden (昇殿) as in Ise Shrine's case, is really the most sacred building at a Shinto shrine, intended purely for the use of the enshrined kami, usually symbolized by a mirror or sometimes by a certain statue.

鎮守 tutelary god
鎮守 local Shinto deity
鎮守 Guardian
社務所 Office
神社 Shrine
神道 Shinto
日本 Japanese
ゲート Gate
建築 Architecture


建設 construction, establishment
構築 construction
構造 structure, construction
建築 architecture, construction
建造 building, construction
組み立て assembly, construction, erection, framework, organization
作図 construction, drawing figures
組立 assembly, construction, erection, framework, organization
敷設 laying, construction
工作 work, construction, maneuvering, handicraft, manoeuvring
設営 construction
架設 construction, building
築造 construction, building
仕組み arrangement, contrivance, construction, plot, devising
作り方 recipe, construction, way of making, workmanship, style of building
組織 organization, system, construction
普請 construction, building
営造 edifice, building, construction, erection, house
仕組 arrangement, contrivance, construction, plot, devising
ストラクチャ organization, construction, arrangement, composition, edifice, building
ストラクチャー structure, construction, arrangement, composition, building, bridge

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